given that


given that
given, given that
These are used as a preposition and conjunction (introducing a subordinate clause) respectively with the meaning ‘(it being) granted or assumed (that)’. The history of their use shows them to be free of the need to be attached to a particular subject, and so they are not so-called ‘unattached participles’ (see participles 3, 4). In the following modern examples, given is grammatically free of the subject of the main clause in each case: (preposition)

• He didn't think that, given her ambitions and temperament, she would enjoy it —A. West, 1984

• There are doubts over the quality of the player he will be able to attract, given the uncertainty hanging over the north London club —Daily Telegraph, 2007

• (conjunction) Given how busy the Spanish monarchs were in the 1480s, it's a wonder they gave Columbus any notice at all —Chicago Tribune, 1988

• The sectors which are now almost wholly dependent on crude…will be forced to contract. Given that climate change caused by burning oil is cooking the planet, this might appear to be a good thing —Guardian, 2003.

A given (as a noun) is a term from philosophy evidently first used by William James in 1879 (If the philosopher fails to find a satisfactory formula of exorcism for his datum, the only thing he can do is to…assume the Given as his necessary ultimate) and now used more generally in the sense ‘a known or established fact or situation’.

Modern English usage. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • given that — ; conjunction • It was surprising the government was re elected, given that they had raised taxes so much. Main entry: ↑givenderived …   Useful english dictionary

  • given that — on the assumption that; since, because …   English contemporary dictionary

  • given — given, given that These are used as a preposition and conjunction (introducing a subordinate clause) respectively with the meaning ‘(it being) granted or assumed (that)’. The history of their use shows them to be free of the need to be attached… …   Modern English usage

  • given — [giv′ən] vt., vi. pp. of GIVE adj. 1. bestowed; presented 2. accustomed, as from habit or inclination; prone [given to lying] 3. stated; specified [a given date] 4. taken as a premise; assumed; granted [given that ABC is a right trian …   English World dictionary

  • That Evening Sun — is a short story by the American author William Faulkner, published in 1931 on the collection These 13 , which included Faulkner s most anthologized story, A Rose for Emily. That Evening Sun is a dark portrait of white Southerners indifference to …   Wikipedia

  • given — giv|en1 [ˈgıvən] the past participle of ↑give given 2 given2 adj [only before noun] 1.) any/a given... any particular time, situation, amount etc that is being used as an example ▪ On any given day in the Houston area, half the hospital beds are… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • given — [[t]gɪ̱v(ə)n[/t]] ♦♦♦ 1) Given is the past participle of give. 2) ADJ: det ADJ If you talk about, for example, any given position or a given time, you mean the particular position or time that you are discussing. In chess there are typically… …   English dictionary

  • given — giv|en1 [ gıvn ] adjective only before noun * 1. ) used for referring to a particular thing: PARTICULAR: About 250 students are working with us at any given time. In a given situation, more than one of these methods may be used. 2. ) a given… …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • given — 1 adjective (only before noun) 1 a given time, date etc is one that has been previously arranged: At a given time we ll all start shouting and cheering. 2 at any given time/point etc at any particular time, point etc: The distance from the centre …   Longman dictionary of contemporary English

  • given — I UK [ˈɡɪv(ə)n] / US adjective [only before noun] * 1) used for referring to a particular thing About 250 students are working with us at any given time. In a given situation, more than one of these methods may be used. 2) a given period has… …   English dictionary